The policy of non-alignment was established on three very sound theoretical and practical considerations. First, the entire history of India shows that India always championed the cause of peaceful co-existence. India never subscribed to expansionist power politics. Upnishads, Gita, Buddha, Ashoka and Gandhi have been exponents of the philosophy of peace. Thus, non-alignment was naturally expected as the political expression of India's traditional philosophy of peace. If the countries of the world could look towards any nation to lead them to an era of peace and co-operation, it had to be India and India alone.
Secondly, the exigencies of international power-politics demanded the policy of non-alignment. In a hostile world torn by armed sections, it was an extremely prudent policy to strengthen areas of peace to wean away as many nations as possible from military alliances. Consolidation of peace areas diffused tension and acted as a deterrent to the clash of the two power groups.
Thirdly, India as a developing nation could hardly afford, to get entangled in military alliances of rival power systems and get distracted from the principal task of socio-economic reconstruction. A newly emerged nation that had just embarked on the process of national reconstruction could hardly make itself a part of military pacts. To India, social welfare programmes were of primary importance, Thus India opted for the policy of non-alignment also as a necessity.
It was due to India’s non-aligned posture that the nation could play a significant role in bringing an end to the wars in North and South Korea by playing the role of a peace-maker. India in those days also played an important part in the solution of other disputes like Congo, Cyprus, Arab-Israel, etc.