The Sino-Indian War occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan
border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had
been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when
we granted asylum to the Dalai Lama. Unable to reach political
accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225-kilometer-long Himalayan
border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the
McMahon Line on 20 October 1962.
Mumbai was considered the economical capital of India because
of the textile mills that laid the foundations of the city we know today. Mumbai's
first textile mill, the Bombay Spinning Mill, was set up in 1856. During those
days, Britain imported cotton from the United States. When the civil War broke
out in America, the supplies stopped, which resulted in a boom for the Indian
Nonalignment had its origins in India's colonial experience and the nonviolent Indian independence struggle led by the Congress, which left India determined to be the master of its fate in an international system dominated politically by Cold War alliances and economically by Western capitalism and Soviet communism. The principles of nonalignment, as articulated by Nehru and his successors, were preservation of India's freedom of action internationally through refusal to align India with any bloc or alliance, particularly those led by the United States or the Soviet Union; nonviolence and international cooperation as a means of settling international disputes. Nonalignment was a consistent feature of Indian foreign policy by the late 1940s and enjoyed strong, almost unquestioning support among the Indian elite.
The All India Muslim League (AIML) was formed in Dhaka in 1906 by Muslims who were suspicious of the Hindu-majority Indian National Congress. They complained that Muslim members did not have the same rights as Hindu members. A number of different scenarios were proposed at various times. Among the first to make the demand for a separate state was the writer/philosopher Allama Iqbal, who, in his presidential address to the 1930 convention of the Muslim League said that a separate nation for Muslims was essential in an otherwise Hindu-dominated subcontinent.
The early history of British expansion in India was characterised by the co-existence of two approaches towards the existing princely states. The first was a policy of annexation, where the British sought to forcibly absorb the Indian princely states into the provinces which constituted their Empire in India. The second was a policy of indirect rule, where the British assumed suzerainty and paramountcy over princely states, but conceded some degree of sovereignty to them. ..