The aftermath of the war saw sweeping changes in the Indian military to prepare it for similar conflicts in the future. There was immense pressure on the Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, who was seen responsible for failing to anticipate the Chinese attack on India. Indians reacted with a surge in patriotism and memorials were erected for many of the Indian troops who died in the war.
India After Independence
After the horrible war, China reached its claim lines and did not advance farther. Under immense international pressures, on 19 November Zhou Enlai declared a unilateral cease-fire. By then, 1,383 Indian jawans were killed, 1,047 were wounded, 1,696 went missing and 3,968 were captured. While 722 Chinese soldiers were killed and 1,697 were wounded.
The war had begun, but Indians were not prepared. While the Chinese were heavily prepared, Indians were confident that war would not be triggered and made little preparations. On 20 October 1962, the Chinese army launched two attacks, 1000 kilometers apart.
In the year 1947, India won Independence which was accompanied by a dreadful partition of the nation. Soon afterwards, in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) was established. One of the most basic policies for the Indian government was that of maintaining cordial relations with China, reviving its ancient friendly ties. India was among the first nations to grant diplomatic recognition to the newly-created People's Republic of China.
The history of boundary dispute between India and China is not new. In 1865, W. H. Johnson, a civil servant with the Survey of India proposed the "Johnson Line", which put Aksai Chin in Kashmir. Although Chinese never accepted this line, it was well accepted as the border between India and China by the international communities.