Amul (Anand Milk Union Limited), formally registered on December 14, 1946, is a dairy cooperative movement in India. Amul spurred the White Revolution of India, which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world. It is also the world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand. The Amul revolution was started as awareness among the farmers. It grew and matured into a protest movement that was channeled towards economic prosperity.
The brand name Amul, sourced from the Sanskrit word Amoolya, means priceless. It was suggested by a quality control expert in Anand. Some cite the origin as an acronym to (Anand Milk Union Limited).
AMUL is based in Anand town of Gujarat and has been a sterling example of a co-operative organization's success in the long term. It is one of the best examples of co-operative achievement in the developing world. “Anyone who has seen ... the dairy cooperatives in the state of Gujarat, especially the highly successful one known as AMUL, will naturally wonder what combination of influences and incentives is needed to multiply such a model a thousand times over in developing regions everywhere.”
It is a brand name managed by an apex cooperative organisation, Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned by some 2.6 million milk producers in Gujarat, India. The Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely appropriate model for rural development.
The setting up of Co-operatives:
Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union Limited:
The Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers' Union Limited (KDCMPUL) began pasteurizing milk for the Bombay Milk Scheme in June 1948. By the end of 1948, more than 400 farmers joined in more Village Society, and the quantity of milk handled by one Union increased from 250 to 5,000 liters a day. Dr. Verghese Kurien, fed up being at the government creamery in Anand, which held no challenge, volunteered to help Shri Tribhovandas Patel, the Chairman of KDCMPUL, in setting up a processing plant. This marked the birth of AMUL. The success of Amul was instrumental in launching the White Revolution that resulted in increased milk production in India. It is officially termed as Operation Flood by Amul. The breakthrough technology of spray-drying and processing buffalo milk, developed by Mr. H.M. Dalaya, was one of the key factors that contributed to the Revolution.
Setting Up of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation:
In 1954, Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers’ Union built a plant to convert surplus milk produced in the cold seasons into milk powder and butter. In 1958, a plant to manufacture cheese and one to produce baby food were added. Subsequent years saw the addition of more plants to produce different products. In 1973, the milk societies/district level unions decided to set up a marketing agency to market their products. This agency was the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF). It was registered as a co-operative society on 9 July 1973.
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) follows a three-tier structure at village, district and state level for procuring, processing and marketing milk and milk products. The district units also provide technical back-stopping to the milk producers and a range of services such as feed, veterinary care, artificial insemination, education and training.
GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organisation. It is a state level apex body of milk cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products, which are good value for money. GCMMF markets and manages the Amul brand. From mid-1990's Amul has entered areas not related directly to its core business. Its entry into ice cream was regarded as successful and Pizza business, where the base and the recipes were made available to restaurant owners at lower rates.
In September 2007, Amul emerged as the leading Asian brand according to a survey by Synovate to find out Asia's top 1000 Brands.