Against untouchability and views on Partition

Between 1941 and 1945, he published a large number of highly controversial books and pamphlets, including Thoughts on Pakistan, in which he criticized the Muslim League's demand for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. With What Congress and Gandhi Have Done to the Untouchables, Ambedkar intensified his attacks on Gandhi and the Congress, charging them with hypocrisy. In his work Who Were the Shudras,Ambedkar attempted to explain the formation of the Shudras i.e. the lowest caste in hierarchy of Hindu caste system. He also emphasised how Shudras are separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party into the All India Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the elections held in 1946 for the Constituent Assembly of India. In writing a sequel to Who Were the Shudras? in 1948, Ambedkar lambasted Hinduism in the The Untouchables: A Thesis on the Origins of Untouchability The Hindu Civilisation.... is a diabolical contrivance to suppress and enslave humanity. Its proper name would be infamy. What else can be said of a civilisation which has produced a mass of people... who are treated as an entity beyond human intercourse and whose mere touch is enough to cause pollution

The first Satyagraha at Mahad against the prohibition on untouchables to have drinking water at the public pond. (25.12.1927)

A view of Kalaram Temple Entry Satya-Graha at Nashik under the leadership of Dr.Ambedkar. (1930)

‘Mook Nayak’(The Leader of the Dumb)To proclaim and to bring to light the humiliations suffered by the ‘untouchalbes’ and to fight for equal rights, a periodical called ‘Mook Nayak’ was started. Ambedkar gave his support to it. He wrote in the first issued of this paper, "The Hindu Society is like a tower of many stories. It has neither a ladder nor a door to go out…. A Society which believes the God exists even in inanimate things, also says that people who are a part of that very society should not be touched!’By this time there were signs that the Hindu Society was beginning tounderstand that ‘untouchability’ is unjust.

Dr.Ambedkar observing Rally of Samata Sainik Dal established at Kamgar Maidan ,Parel, Mumbai.

Dr.Ambedkar with Women delegates of the Scheduled Caste Federation during the Conference of the Federation on July8, 1942 at Nagpur.

In a "communal malaise", both groups [Hindus and Muslims] ignore the urgent claims of social justice.While he was extremely critical of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the communally divisive strategies of the Muslim League, he argued that Hindus and Muslims should segregate and the State of Pakistan be formed, as ethnic nationalism within the same country would only lead to more violence. He cited precedents in historical events such as the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Czechoslovakia to bolster his views regarding the Hindu-Muslim communal divide.However, he questioned whether the need for Pakistan was sufficient and suggested that it might be possible to resolve Hindu-Muslim differences in a less drastic way. He wrote that Pakistan must "justify its existence" accordingly. Since other countries such as Canada have also had communal issues with the French and English and have lived together, it might not be impossible for Hindus and Muslims to live together.He warned that the actual implementation of a two-state solution would be extremely problematic with massive population transfers and border disputes. This claim was prophetic, looking forward to the violent Partition of India after Independence.